First Look at Expressive Neumes In this course we'll discuss approaches to the salicus, the quilisma, and the episema, and test our knowledge on a few chanted propers from the Graduale Romanum. Prerequisites: Gregorian Notation I and II or the equivalent. That Controversial Ictus If it's not an accent mark, what is it? Learn where it came from, when to ignore it, or how you can put it to use to help your schola sing together! Prerequisites: Gregorian Notation I and II or the equivalent.